Lake Michigan Ozone Study

Elevated spring and summertime ozone levels remain a challenge along the coast of Lake Michigan, with a number of monitors recording levels/amounts exceeding the 2015 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The production of ozone over Lake Michigan, combined with onshore daytime “lake breeze” airflow is believed to increase ozone concentrations at locations within a few kilometers off shore. This observed lake-shore gradient motivated the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS). Conducted from May through June 2017, the goal of LMOS was to better understand ozone formation and transport around Lake Michigan; in particular, why ozone concentrations are generally highest along the lakeshore and drop off sharply inland and why ozone concentrations peak in rural areas far from major emission sources. LMOS was a collaborative, multi-agency field study that provided extensive observational air quality and meteorology datasets through a combination of airborne, ship, mobile laboratories, and fixed ground-based observational platforms. Chemical transport models (CTMs) and meteorological forecast tools assisted in planning for day-to-day measurement strategies. The long term goals of the LMOS field study were to improve modeled ozone forecasts for this region, better understand ozone formation and transport around Lake Michigan, provide a better understanding of the lakeshore gradient in ozone concentrations (which could influence how the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) addresses future regional ozone issues), and provide improved knowledge of how emissions influence ozone formation in the region.

DOI: 10.5067/SUBORBITAL/LMOS/DATA001

Disciplines:   Field Campaigns

LMOS Publications

Doak A G, Christiansen M B, Alwe H D, Bertram T H, Carmichael G, Cleary P, Czarnetzki A C, Dickens A F, Janssen M, Kenski D, Millet D B, Novak G A, Pierce B R, Stone E A, Long R W, Vermeuel M P, Wagner T J, Valin L and Stanier C O (2021). Characterization of ground-based atmospheric pollution and meteorology sampling stations during the Lake Michigan Ozone Study 2017. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, 71 (7), 866. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2021.1900000


Ladd J (2017). Dr. Charles Stanier provides Lake Michigan Ozone Study update. Retrieved from https://iowaenvironmentalfocus.org/2017/03/09/dr-charles-stanier-provides-lake-michigan-ozone-study-update/


Odman M T, White A T, Doty K, McNider R T, Pour-Biazar A, Qin M, Hu Y, Knipping E, Wu Y and Dornblaser B (2019). Examination of Nudging Schemes in the Simulation of Meteorology for Use in Air Quality Experiments: Application in the Great Lakes Region. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 58 (11), http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-18-0206.1


Avila L (2016). Lake Michigan Ozone Study 2017: Collaborative field campaign will pursue sources and transport of ozone. Retrieved from https://www.ssec.wisc.edu/news/articles/9012


Atkinson J (2017). NASA Aids Study of Lake Michigan High-Ozone Events. Retrieved from https://www.nasa.gov/feature/langley/nasa-aids-study-of-lake-michigan-high-ozone-events


Stanier C O, Pierce R B, Abdi-Oskouei M, Adelman Z E, Al-Saadi J, Alwe H D, Bertram T H, Carmichael G R, Christiansen M B, Cleary P A, Czarnetzki A C, Dickens A F, Fuoco M A, Hughes D D, Hupy J P, Janz S J, Judd L M, Kenski D, Kowalewski M G, Long R W, Millet D B, Novak G, Roozitalab B, Shaw S L, Stone E A, Szykman J, Valin L, Vermeuel M, Wagner T J, Whitehill A R and Williams D J (2021). Overview of the Lake Michigan Ozone Study 2017. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0061.1


Hughes D D, Christiansen M B, Milani A, Vermeuel M P, Novak G A, Alwe H D, Dickens A F, Pierce R B, Millet D B, Bertram T H, Stanier C O and Stone E A (2020). PM2.5 chemistry, organosulfates, and secondary organic aerosol during the 2017 Lake Michigan Ozone Study. Atmospheric Environment, 244 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117939


Abdi‐Oskouei M, Carmichael G, Christiansen M, Ferrada G, Roozitalab B, Sobhani N, Wade K, Czarnetzki A, Pierce R B, Wagner T and Stanier C (2020). Sensitivity of Meteorological Skill to Selection of WRF-Chem Physical Parameterizations and Impact on Ozone Prediction During the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS). Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125 (5), http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2019JD031971


Vermeuel M P, Novak G A, Alwe H D, Hughes D D, Kaleel R, Dickens A F, Kenski D, Czarnetzki A C, Stone E A, Stanier C O, Pierce R B, Millet D B and Bertram T H (2019). Sensitivity of Ozone Production to NOx and VOC Along the Lake Michigan Coastline. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124 (20), 10989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2019JD030842


McBride B A, Martins J V, Barbosa H M J, Birmingham W and Remer L A (2020). Spatial distribution of cloud droplet size properties from Airborne Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter (AirHARP) measurements. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 13 (4), 1777. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/amt-13-1777-2020


Collection Disciplines Spatial Temporal
LMOS_AircraftInSitu_ScientificAviation_Data_1
LMOS Scientific Aviation In-Situ Data
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(40, 45), (-90, -85)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-05-22 - 2017-06-24
Temporal Resolution:
Variable
LMOS_AircraftRemoteSensing_UC12_Data_1
LMOS UC-12 Aircraft Remote Sensing Data
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(40, 45), (-90, -85)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-05-22 - 2017-06-27
Temporal Resolution:
Variable
LMOS_Ground_Grafton_Data_1
LMOS Grafton Ground Site Data
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(40, 45), (-90, -85)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-05-10 - 2017-06-21
Temporal Resolution:
Variable
LMOS_Ground_IEPA_Data_1
LMOS Illinois EPA (IEPA) Ground Site Data
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(40, 45), (-90, -85)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-05-30 - 2017-05-30
Temporal Resolution:
Variable
LMOS_Ground_Milwaukee_Data_1
LMOS Milwaukee Ground Site Data
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(40, 45), (-90, -85)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-05-10 - 2017-06-15
Temporal Resolution:
Variable
LMOS_Ground_SchillerPark_Data_1
LMOS Schiller Park Ground Site Data
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(40, 45), (-90, -85)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-05-22 - 2017-10-04
Temporal Resolution:
Variable
LMOS_Ground_Sheboygan_Data_1
LMOS Sheboygan Ground Site Data
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(40, 45), (-90, -85)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-05-09 - 2017-06-22
Temporal Resolution:
Variable
LMOS_Ground_WDNRRoutine_Data_1
LMOS Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) Routine Ground Site Data
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(40, 45), (-90, -85)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-05-22 - 2017-06-08
Temporal Resolution:
Variable
LMOS_Ground_Zion_Data_1
LMOS Zion Ground Site Data
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(40, 45), (-90, -85)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-05-16 - 2017-06-22
Temporal Resolution:
Variable
LMOS_MetNav_AircraftInSitu_UC12_Data_1
LMOS UC-12 In-Situ Meteorological and Navigational Data
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(40, 45), (-90, -85)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-05-22 - 2017-06-27
Temporal Resolution:
Variable
LMOS_Miscellaneous_Data_1
LMOS Miscellaneous and Ancillary Data Products
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(-90, 90), (-180, 180)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-01-01 - 2018-01-01
LMOS_TraceGas_ShipInSitu_Data_1
LMOS NOAA Research Vessel In-Situ Ozone Data
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(40, 45), (-90, -85)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-06-02 - 2017-06-02
Temporal Resolution:
Variable
LMOS_TraceGas_SurfaceMobile_EPA-GMAP_Data_1
LMOS Surface Mobile EPA-GMAP Ozone Data
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(40, 45), (-90, -85)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-06-06 - 2017-06-13
Temporal Resolution:
Variable
LMOS_TraceGas_SurfaceMobile_UWEC-Auto_Data_1
LMOS Surface Mobile University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Ozone Data
Field Campaigns Spatial Coverage:
(40, 45), (-90, -85)
Temporal Coverage:
2017-06-02 - 2017-06-17
Temporal Resolution:
Variable